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The park is home to three communities, termed Kasekela, Mitumba, and Kalande, which have been studied by Goodall and colleagues since the 1960s, 1980s, and 1990s, respectively (Pusey et al. Prospective studies of SIVcpz in Gombe began in 2000 (Santiago et al. By 2009, infections were documented in all three communities, with mean biannual prevalence rates of 13%, 12%, and 46% in Mitumba, Kasekela, and Kalande, respectively (Rudicell et al. Analysis of epidemiologically linked infections revealed that SIVcpz spreads primarily through sexual routes, with an estimated transmission probability per coital act (0.0008–0.0015) that is similar to that of HIV-1 among heterosexual humans (0.0011) (Gray et al. Age-corrected mortality analyses revealed that infected chimpanzees had a 10- to 16-fold increased risk of death compared to uninfected chimpanzees (Keele et al. SIVcpz-infected females were less likely to give birth and had a much higher infant mortality rate than uninfected females.Postmortem analyses revealed significant CD4 T-cell depletion in three infected individuals, but not in either of two uninfected individuals.
Gombe is located in northwestern Tanzania on the shores of Lake Tanganyika. SIVcpz also appears to be transmitted from infected mothers to their infants, and in rare cases, possibly by aggression (Keele et al. Migration of infected females constitutes a major route of virus transmission between communities (Rudicell et al. Behavioral and virological studies also provided insight into the pathogenicity of SIVcpz.
Antibody positive fecal specimens were then subjected to RNA extraction and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification to molecularly characterize the infecting virus strain. In addition, SIVcpz prevalence rates among central and eastern chimpanzees varied widely, ranging from 30% to 50% in some communities to rare or absent infection in others. Nonetheless, the puzzle of why SIVcpz was so scarce among captive chimpanzees was finally resolved: As it turned out, most of these apes were imported from West Africa and thus were members of the ) gorillas have been sampled are shown (each site is identified by a two-letter code; because of space limitations, only a subset is depicted). The current range of the central chimpanzee overlaps those of red-capped mangabeys and the various species, and so it is likely that the cross-species transmission events that led to the emergence of SIVcpz occurred in that area, and that SIVcpz later spread to eastern chimpanzees, although it is unclear whether this occurred during or subsequent to their divergence from the central subspecies.
At select field sites, mitochondrial and microsatellite analyses of host DNA were also used to confirm sample integrity and to determine the number of tested individuals. In contrast, other SIVs, such as those of sooty mangabeys and African green monkeys, are much more widely and evenly distributed and infect their hosts at generally higher prevalence rates (Phillips-Conroy et al. Sites where SIV infections were detected are highlighted in yellow. Importantly, all of more than 30 sequenced SIVcpz strains show an identical mosaic genome structure.
Figure 3A summarizes current molecular epidemiological data derived from the analysis of over 7,000 chimpanzee fecal samples collected at nearly 90 field sites (Santiago et al. The upper panel depicts the ranges of the four subspecies of the common chimpanzee (, brown) gorillas (map courtesy of Lilian Pintea, The Jane Goodall Institute). Moreover, there is no evidence that chimpanzees harbor any other SIV, although they, as well as bonobos, are routinely exposed to SIVs through their hunting behavior (Mitani and Watts 1999; Surbeck and Hohmann 2008; Leendertz et al. Initially, SIVcpz was thought to be harmless for its natural host.
Data were compiled from several studies (Santiago et al. This was because none of the few captive apes that were naturally SIVcpz infected suffered from overt immunodeficiency, although in retrospect this conclusion was based on the immunological and virological analyses of only a single naturally infected chimpanzee (Heeney et al. In addition, SIV-infected sooty mangabeys and African green monkeys showed no sign of disease despite high viral loads in blood and lymphatic tissues (Paiardini et al.